TFT Research and one Review that has been published
in peer reviewed journals or has passed a University review for doctoral dissertation.

Carbonell, J.L., & Figley, C. (1999). A systematic clinical demonstration of promising PTSD treatment approaches. Electronic Journal of Traumatology, 5(1 ).

Traumatic Incident Reduction, Visual-Kinesthetic Disassociation, Eye Movement
Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Thought Field Therapy were investigated through a
systematic clinical demonstration (SCD) methodology. This methodology guides the
examination, but does not test the effectiveness of clinical approaches. Each approach was
demonstrated by nationally recognized practitioners following a similar protocol, though their
methods of treatment varied. A total of 39 research participants were treated and results showed
that all four approaches had some immediate impact on clients and appear to also have some
lasting impact. The paper also discusses the theoretical, clinical, and methodological implications
of the study.

Connolly, S.M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C.E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Connolly, S.M., & Sakai, C.E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan Genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed. PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Darby, D. W. (2002). The efficacy of Thought Field Therapy as a treatment modality for individuals diagnosed with blood-injection-injury phobia. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (03), 1485B. (UMI No. 3085152)

A pretest, posttest, quantitative study was conducted involving the measured efficacy of Thought Field Therapy as a useful component for the treatment of individuals diagnosed with blood-injection-injury phobia, also known as needle phobia. The study investigated whether this intervention could serve as a means of reducing or eliminating phobic symptomology. Twenty-one people diagnosed with needle phobia were recruited for the study. Participants were individually assessed and administered the Fear Survey Schedule (FSS) to establish a baseline with respect to levels of phobic anxiety prior to treatment. Participants then received a single one-hour treatment intervention of Thought Field Therapy. Following treatment, participants were not seen for one month, after which they were readministered the FSS as a posttest measure. Results revealed a significant difference pre- and posttreatment as measured by the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS). Although results showed no significant difference with regard to gender response, findings suggested that Thought Field Therapy may be an effective method of treatment intervention for the population studied, and possibly beneficial for other phobic populations. Future research should involve

Dunnewold, A.L. (2014) Thought Field Therapy efficacy following large scale traumatic events.
Current Research in Psychology, 5(1): 34-39.doi:10.38/crpsp.2014

Thought Field Therapy Efficacy Following Large Scale Traumatic Events: Description of Four Studies Thought Field Therapy (TFT) has been shown to reduce symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) with trauma survivors in four studies in Africa. In a 2006 preliminary study, orphaned Rwandan adolescents, who reported ongoing trauma symptoms since the 1994 genocide, were treated with TFT. A 2008 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of TFT treatments facilitated by Rwandan Community leaders in reducing PTS symptoms in adult survivors of the 1994 genocide. Results of the 2008 study were replicated in a second RCT in Rwanda in 2009. A fourth RCT in Uganda (in preparation for submission) demonstrated significant differences in a third community leader-administered TFT treatment. The studies described here suggest that one-time, community leader-facilitated TFT interventions may be beneficial with protracted PTS in genocide survivors. Keywords: Posttraumatic Stress (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 1994 Rwandan Genocide, Thought Field Therapy (TFT), Energy Psychology, Trauma, Trauma Survivors, Genocide Survivors, Community-Based Psychological Intervention

Edwards, J., & Vanchu-Orosco, M. (2017). A meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized trials of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Paper accepted at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Comprehensive Energy Psychology, San Antonio, Texas.

Background: Thought Field therapy (TFT) is a method of tapping on the meridians of the body to treat posttraumatic stress. The purpose of the study was to determine whether participants, guided by TFT trained professionals or paraprofessionals, demonstrate trauma symptom reduction greater than those receiving no treatment on measures of PTSD-specific erauma. Method: A meta-analysis of studies (conducted between 2001 and 2016) evaluating TFT efficacy for individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress was conducted. Thirty-nine databases were searched. In addition, requests were sent to colleagues to share any studies that had not been published. Every attempt was made to obtain all studies that had been done on TFT and posttraumatic stress. Five studies met the qualifications for inclusion in the preliminary meta-analysis: 1) Posttraumatic stress needed to be one of the identifiers or be separated out if other psychological problems were included; 2) Thought Field Therapy needed to be the treatment or be separated out if other treatments were involved; 3) assessment had to capture change from initial diagnosis to measuring the outcome after TFT treatment; and 4) the study needed to have means, standard deviations, and/or pvalues, or it needed to have quantitative data so that pre and post measures could be compared. In two of the studies, a 1-10 Subjective Units of Distress (SUD) scale was used rather than a measure of posttraumatic stress. a larger population sample, examine additional manifestations of phobic anxiety, and investigate the role of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a component of specific phobias.

Edwards J. (2016). Healing in Rwanda: The words of the therapists. The International Journal of Healing and Caring, 16(1). Retrieved from

In 2009, four therapists from the United Sates presented the basic algorithm training in Thought Field Therapy (TFT) to 36 respected community members at the Izere Center (Center for Hope) in the Northern District of Rwanda. A year later, 35 of the trained therapists reported in an interview that they had treated an average of 37.50 people each (SD = 25.37). They had met with each person an average of 3.19 sessions (SD = 1.08) to assist with various issues. They reported that they had treated from 3 (n = 1, 2.9%) to 123 (n = 1, 2.9%) people. They also shared their experiences during the year following treatment. The therapists reported that prior to the Thought Field Therapy treatments, their clients had experienced anger, fear, headaches, hopelessness, anxiety, loneliness, and sadness. They reported that after the treatment, people’s lives had changed. They felt happy, their trauma was gone, they felt better than before they had come to the therapist for help, they had regained hope, they wanted to work, and their fears were gone. The therapists reported that TFT had made a difference when their clients took it seriously and wanted help, the clients had memories of the trauma and knew what they wanted to work on, the therapists prepared the clients for TFT by explaining it, and the clients followed directions. They reported that it did not appear to help the clients when the clients went home to conditions of poverty and confused the adversities of poverty with the symptoms of genocide trauma, the clients were not aware of the problem, the clients wanted to beg or misled the therapist, and the clients doubted that it would work. The clients were pleased with their treatments; gave testimonies about the help they had received; were grateful; returned to say, “Thank you;” and brought other clients for treatment. The therapists believed that TFT had made a difference in the community. The therapists reported that TFT is really effective, they indicated that a positive aspect of TFT is that people can treat themselves, and they recommended that TFT be used throughout Rwanda. Key words: Thought Field Therapy, TFT, Energy Psychology, Rwanda, PTSD, Trauma.

Folkes, C. (2002). Thought Field Therapy and trauma recovery. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 4, 99-103.

People who have been repeatedly exposed to traumatic events are at high risk for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Refugees and immigrants can certainly be in this category, but seldom seek professional therapy due to cultural, linguistic, financial, and historical reasons. A rapid and culturally sensitive treatment is highly desirable with communities new to Western-style healing. In this study of 31 clients (aged 5-48 yrs.), a pre-test was given, all participants received Thought Field Therapy (TFT), and were then post-tested after 30 days. Pre-test and post-test total scores showed a significant drop in all symptom sub-groupings of the criteria for PTSD. The findings of this study contrast with the outcomes of other methods of treatment, and are a significant addition to the growing body of data on refugee mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Irgens, A.C., Hoffart, A., Nysaeter, T.E., Haaland, V.O., Borge, F.M. ,Pripp, A.H., Martinsen, E.W., & Dammen, T. (2017) Thought Field Therapy Compared to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Wait-List for Agoraphobia: A Randomized, Controlled Study with a 12-Month Follow-up. Frontiers of Psychology, 20 June 2017.

Background: Thought field therapy (TFT) is used for many psychiatric conditions, but its efficacy has not been sufficiently documented. Hence, there is a need for studies comparing TFT to well-established treatments. This study compares the efficacy of TFT and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for patients with agoraphobia. Methods: Seventy-two patients were randomized to CBT (N = 24), TFT (N = 24) or a wait-list condition (WLC) (N = 24) after a diagnostic procedure including the MINI PLUS that was performed before treatment or WLC. Following a 3 months waiting period, the WL patients were randomized to CBT (n = 12) or TFT (n = 12), and all patients were reassessed after treatment or waiting period and at 12 months follow-up. At first we compared the three groups CBT, TFT, and WL. After the post WL randomization, we compared CBT (N = 12 + 24 = 36) to TFT (N = 12 + 24 = 36), applying the pre-treatment scores as baseline for all patients. The primary outcome measure was a symptom score from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Scale that was performed by an interviewer blinded to the treatment condition. For statistical comparisons, we used the independent sample’s t-test, the Fisher’s exact test and the ANOVA and ANCOVA tests.
Results: Both CBT and TFT showed better results than the WLC (p < 0.001) at post-treatment. Post-treatment and at the 12-month follow-up, there were not significant differences between CBT and TFT (p = 0.33 and p = 0.90, respectively).
Conclusion: This paper reports the first study comparing TFT to CBT for any disorder. The study indicated that TFT may be an efficient treatment for patients with agoraphobia. Trial Registration:, identifier NCT00932919.

Irgens, A., Dammen, T., Nysaeter. T., & Hoffart, A. (2012). Thought Field Therapy (TFT) as a Treatment for Anxiety Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Explore.8 (6) 331-337

Objective: To investigate whether thought field therapy (TFT) has any impact on anxiety symptoms in patients with a wide range of anxiety disorders. Design: Forty-five patients who were randomized to either TFT (n = 23) or a waiting list (n = 22) condition. The wait-list group was reassessed and compared with the TFT group two and a half months after the initial evaluation. After the assessment, the wait-list patients received treatment with TFT. All 45 patients were followed up one to two weeks after TFT treatment, as well as at three and 12 months after treatment. Subjects: Patients with an anxiety disorder, mostly outpatients. Intervention: TFT aims to influence the body’s bioenergy field by tapping on specific points along energy meridians, thereby relieving anxiety and other symptoms. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the TFT and the wait-list group. The TFT group had a significantly better outcome on two measures of anxiety and one measure of function. Follow-up data for all patients taken showed a significant decrease in all symptoms during the one to two weeks between the pretreatment and the post-treatment assessments. The significant improvement seen after treatment was maintained at the three- and 12-month assessments. Conclusion: The results suggest that TFT may have an enduring anxiety-reducing effect. Registration number NCT00202709, Key Words: Thought field therapy, TF, psychotherapy, anxiety disorders.

Robson, R., Robson, P., Ludwig, R., Mitabu, C., Phillips, C. (2016) Effectiveness of Thought Field Therapy Provided by Newly Instructed Community Workers to a Traumatized Population in Uganda: A Randomized Trial. Current Research in Psychology, DOI: 10.3844/crpsp

Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a promising treatment for posttraumatic stress in a resource poor environment. This study further explores the benefits of this treatment in a rural population in Uganda, which had suffered from the psychological consequences of previous violent conflict. Thirty-six local community workers received a two-day training in TFT trauma intervention and treated 256 volunteers with symptoms suggestive of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who had been randomly allocated to a treatment or waitlist (control) group. Assessment was by the Posttraumatic Checklist for Civilians (PCL-C). One week after treatment, the treated group scores had improved significantly from 58 to 26.1. The waitlist group scores did improve without treatment, from 61.2 to 47, although significantly less than the treatment group, but improved markedly to 26.4 following treatment. There was some evidence of persisting benefit 19 months later. This study supports the value of TFT as a rapid, efficient and effective therapy, empowering traumatized communities to treat themselves, although repeated treatment may still be needed. Keywords: Thought Field Therapy, PTSD, Uganda, Conflict, Community Therapists

Sakai, C., Connolly, S., & Oas, P. (2010). Treatment of PTSD in Rwanda genocide survivors
Using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 12(1), 41-49.

Thought Field Therapy (TFT), which utilizes the self-tapping of specific acupuncture points while recalling a traumatic event or cue, was applied with 50 orphaned adolescents who had been suffering with symptoms of PTSD since the Rwandan genocide 12 years earlier. Following a single TFT session, scores on a PTSD checklist completed by caretakers and on a self-rated PTSD checklist had significantly decreased (p < .0001 on both measures). The number of participants exceeding the PTSD cutoffs decreased from 100% to 6% on the caregiver ratings and from 72% to 18% on the self-ratings. The findings were corroborated by informal interviews with the adolescents and the caregivers, which indicated dramatic reductions of PTSD symptoms such as flashbacks, nightmares, bedwetting, depression, isolation, difficulty concentrating, jumpiness, and aggression. Following the study, the use of TFT on a self-applied and peer-utilized basis became part of the culture at the orphanage, and on one-year follow-up the initial improvements had been maintained as shown on both checklists.
PMID:20828089 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Schoninger, B. (2004). Efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) as a treatment modality for persons with public speaking anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65 (10), 5455. (UMI No. AAT 3149748)

This study investigated the effects of one 60-minute Thought Field Therapy (TFT) session on 48 participants with public speaking anxiety. Within that group, 38 were women and 10 were men, ranging in age from 27 to 59. Their education varied from some high school to individuals who had doctoral degrees. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group or a delayed treatment group. There were 28 participants in the treatment group (5 males and 23 females) and 20 participants in the delayed treatment group (5 males and 15 females). They were randomly assigned to one of 11 therapists (3 men and 8 women). All therapists were licensed and trained in TFT, level II. The measurements administered by an independent assessor were subjective units of disturbance (SUD), (Wolpe, 1958), Speaker Anxiety Scale (SA Scale), (Clevenger & Halvorson, 1992) and The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Speilberger, 1983). Post-treatment SUD scores decreased significantly (p:S .000). In analyzing the 9 dependent measures of the SA Scale for both groups, post­treatment scores showed a significant decrease in anxiety (p :S .01) and an increase in positive factors significant at the (p :S .000) level except for ‘”Wants More” (p :S .03). Despite the brevity of the treatment, treatment effect sizes in this study range from .71 to 1.58. The mean effect size on overall anxiety was 1.75. Results support the effectiveness of TFT in reducing public speaking anxiety and increasing participant’s positive anticipation of future public speaking experiences.

Yancey, V. (2002). The use of Thought Field Therapy in educational settings. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (07), 2470A. (UMI No. 3059661)

This study explored how thought field therapy (TFT) was used in educational settings by students and adults, its effects, and possible difficulties. TFT is a self-help technique developed by Dr. Roger Callahan for the treatment of traumas, phobias, and the psychological pain caused by other upsetting experiences (Callahan & Callahan, 2000). Studies have shown that students and educators are challenged by the myriad of difficulties with which they must deal in the process of teaching and learning{Bell, 1998; Carter, 1994; Darling-Hammond, 1990). A qualitative methodological approach that included in-depth interviews and a focus group was utilized. In-depth interviews were carried out with adult participants by telephone and through the use of electronic e-mail. The adult participants were chosen because they have been trained in TFT, and because they use TFT with students. They lived in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Mexico. The focus group participants were middle-school students between the ages of 11 and 14 who attended a community program in the northeastern part of the United States. The students met prior to the focus group meeting for instruction in TFT. After using TFT for a week, they met in a focus group to discuss how, when, and why they used it and their feelings about II using TFT. The findings from the student group showed that students used TFT (a) when confronted with violent situations and when they became angry, (b) when dealing with difficulties in relationships with friends and family, and (c) to help them to be better students in school. Students also reported that they liked TFT and found it easy to use. The adults indicated that they used TIT (a) with students to help them reduce stress. improve test scores, improve relationships with family and peers. reduce their feelings of violence, and improve their self confidence; and (b) for themselves, their families, and friends to relieve stress and reduce tension.